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Thread: Two conjugations of the word "to know."

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    Two conjugations of the word "to know."

    Exodus 6:3 - Parashas Va’eira (5762)


    But My name 'Hashem' I was not known to them. Rashi: It is not written here "[ My name 'Hashem'] "lo Hodati" I did not make known [to them]" Rather [it says] "[ My name 'Hashem'] "lo Nodati" I was not known [ to them]." I was not recognized by them with My attribute of "keeping faith" by reason of which my name is called 'Hashem,' that I am faithful to substantiate my promise. For indeed I promised them but I have not [yet] fulfilled [my promise].

    This is a complex comment; Rashi is addressing two difficulties in our verse. We will our begin analysis by clarifying what he is saying.

    WHAT IS RASHI SAYING?

    Rashi differentiates between the meaning of two conjugations of the word "to know." The two are:

    1. 'lo Nodati' being the passive form, means "I was not known."

    2 'lo Hodati' being the active form, means "I did not make known."

    Rashi points out that, of these two, our verse says "I was not known."

    From Benno Jacob’s Commentary on Exodus
    Dr. Meir Seidler

    Department of Jewish Philosophy

    In addition, Benno Jacob further reinforces his view that we are dealing with the manifestation of G-d’s ways in the world and not with His name by pointing to the fact that nowhere in Scripture does the root y–d–‘ (to know) denote making a new name known, rather it always indicates a deeper sort of understanding or a greater awareness (this word, awareness, uses the same Hebrew root, y-d-‘; pp. 144-145). One outstanding example out of the many that he cites comes from the continuation of our parasha: “And you shall know that I, the Lord (Y-H-W-H), [am your G-d]” (Ex. 6:7). According to Jacob, this verse reverberates in contrast to what was said several verses earlier, “but I did not make myself known to them [the patriarchs] by My name Y-H-W-H.”

    Moreover, if we were truly dealing with revelation of a name that had not previous been known (as Bible criticism tries to maintain), then the root g-l-h, to reveal, would have been used, and not y-d-‘, to know (p. 148). According to Benno Jacob, the distinction between the name El Shaddai and the tetragrammaton in our parasha is also reflected in the verbs that are used in conjunction with these two names: “appeared” and “made myself known:”

    These verbs do not denote a greater or lesser intimacy in G-d’s revelation to the individual human being. It is a fact that Numbers 12:6 states with respect to the lower degree of prophecy, “I make Myself known to him in a vision” (using both the roots, r-a-h, to see, and y-d-‘, to know)… This is not the sense in which G-d’s revelation to the patriarchs differed from His revelation to Moses; rather, here one sort of revelation is contrasted with another, where the second kind of revelation [that given to Moses] could not yet have occurred [in the time of the fathers], insofar as it is destined only for an entire people and not for individuals. This sort of revelation necessitates that the Lord’s might be revealed in deeds of such magnitudes that only the name Y-H-W-H suits them.

    In contrast to the verb “to see,” here the verb “to know” (vida’atem) is interpreted as pertaining to realization of something, in the current case realization of the deeds necessary for the promise to be fulfilled. Benno Jacob rests his argument on such verses as: “But I acted for the sake of My name, … For it was before their eyes that I had made Myself known to them [Israel] to bring them out of the land of Egypt” (Ezek. 20:9) and “when I made Myself known to them in the land of Egypt, I gave my oath to them” (Ezek. 20:5). In these verses, G-d’s making Himself known (root y-d-‘) to His people finds expression in the deeds which He wrought for them to take them out of the land of Egypt.

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    To Abraham, ". . . And He said unto him: 'I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it.' . . ." -- Genesis 15:7.

    To Isaac, " . . . And the LORD appeared unto him the same night, and said: 'I am the God of Abraham thy father. Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for My servant Abraham's sake.' And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the LORD, and pitched his tent there; and there Isaac's servants digged a well. . . ." -- Genesis 26:24-25.

    To Jacob, "(32:10) And Jacob said: 'O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O LORD, who saidst unto me: Return unto thy country, and to thy kindred, and I will do thee good; . . . " -- Genesis 32:9
    . . . the Gospel of Christ, for it is [the] power of God to salvation to every [one] believing, . . . -- Romans 1:16.

    . . . that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: . . . -- 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4.

    Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is born of God: . . . -- 1 John 5:1.

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    A point - God makes himself known to us in various ways - as if to arouse the soul to make oneself aware of God's presence. So, "I was not known" and "I did not make known" is understood in Genesis and also, in Exodus. Moses' speech with God, Exodus 33, is with the thought of "to make known" - 1 Moses said to the Lord, “You have been telling me, ‘Lead these people,’ but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. You have said, ‘I know you by name and you have found favor with me.’ 13 If you are pleased with me, teach me your ways so I may know you and continue to find favor with you. Remember that this nation is your people.”

    Genesis 12:

    12 The Lord had said to Abram, “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you.

    Genesis 13:

    13 So Abram went up from Egypt to the Negev, with his wife and everything he had, and Lot went with him. 2 Abram had become very wealthy in livestock and in silver and gold. 3 From the Negev he went from place to place until he came to Bethel, to the place between Bethel and Ai where his tent had been earlier 4 and where he had first built an altar. There Abram called on the name of the Lord.

    Genesis 14:

    18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine. He was priest of God Most High, 19 and he blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. 20 And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand.”

    Genesis 15:

    In Genesis 15, After this, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision: “Do not be afraid, Abram. I am your shield, your very great reward.”

    The question "being" is how God "makes" himself "known", to us. In the New Testament, and I hope I have this right, in John 6:44
    "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws them, and I will raise them up at the last day." - it is to make himself known to us or to draw us to himself. After Genesis 15, God then appears to Abraham, "1 Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to him and said, “I am God Almighty ; walk before me faithfully and be blameless. 2Then I will make my covenant between me and you and will greatly increase your numbers.”


    That phrase, "I did not make known." or "I was not known." is a matter of a more realistic understanding of when God makes His presence know to man
    Last edited by Marta; 04-23-2016 at 08:16 PM.

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    Exodus 6:3, based on the evidence, should be understood interrogatively, for the negative particle לא

    ". . . and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah I made Me not known to them." -- JPS.

    Reading it interrogatively, ". . . and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah did I not make Me known to them?"

    The KJV, ". . . And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by [the name of] God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them."

    Just add the question mark, ". . . And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by [the name of] God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them?"

    As JEHOVAH:
    Abraham, Genesis 12:7:8; 15:7,8.
    Isaac, Genesis 26:24,25.
    Jacob, Genesis 32:9.

    As God Almighty:
    Abraham, Genesis 17:1.
    Isaac,Genesis 28:3.
    Jacob, Genesis 35:10, 11.

    Notice the above references, by His Name first then latter by God Almighty.
    Last edited by 37818; 04-24-2016 at 06:10 AM.
    . . . the Gospel of Christ, for it is [the] power of God to salvation to every [one] believing, . . . -- Romans 1:16.

    . . . that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: . . . -- 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4.

    Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is born of God: . . . -- 1 John 5:1.

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    tWebber
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    Quote Originally Posted by Marta View Post
    Exodus 6:3 - Parashas Va’eira (5762)


    But My name 'Hashem' I was not known to them. Rashi: It is not written here "[ My name 'Hashem'] "lo Hodati" I did not make known [to them]" Rather [it says] "[ My name 'Hashem'] "lo Nodati" I was not known [ to them]." I was not recognized by them with My attribute of "keeping faith" by reason of which my name is called 'Hashem,' that I am faithful to substantiate my promise. For indeed I promised them but I have not [yet] fulfilled [my promise].

    This is a complex comment; Rashi is addressing two difficulties in our verse. We will our begin analysis by clarifying what he is saying.

    WHAT IS RASHI SAYING?

    Rashi differentiates between the meaning of two conjugations of the word "to know." The two are:

    1. 'lo Nodati' being the passive form, means "I was not known."

    2 'lo Hodati' being the active form, means "I did not make known."

    Rashi points out that, of these two, our verse says "I was not known."
    Rashi said more:

    It is not written here that I did not make known to them, but that I was not known to them, in the sense that I was not recognized by them in terms of My attribute of keeping My word, by reason of which My name is called Y-H-W-H, indicating that I am certain to substantiate My promises, for I made promises to them but did not fulfill them [during their lifetime].

    i.e. he only becomes known as being redeemer , savior.

    Ex. 20:2, "I am the Lord your God who led you out of Egypt out of the house of bondage"

    http://www.chabad.org/holidays/passo...-four-cups.htm

    G‑d uses four expressions of redemption in describing our Exodus from Egypt and our birth as a nation:

    1. "I will take you out…"

    2. "I will save you…"

    3. "I will redeem you…"

    4. "I will take you as a nation…"

    (...)

    There is actually a fifth expression in the above mentioned verses: "And I will bring you to the land which I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I will give it to you as an inheritance.
    While the Exodus from Egypt and the birth of the Jewish nation were permanent, we have yet to be brought to Israel on a permanent basis.

    In honor of this verse we have a fifth cup at the Seder: the Cup of Elijah. This cup is set up for Elijah during the second half of the Seder, but we do not drink it. Elijah will announce the arrival of Moshiach, who will bring all Jews to Israel, for good.

    So only when the Messiah comes God's name will be fully known.

    Which must be the sense of John 1:18,

    No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the bosom of the father, he has made him known.

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    tWebber
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    Quote Originally Posted by 37818 View Post
    Exodus 6:3, based on the evidence, should be understood interrogatively, for the negative particle לא

    ". . . and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah I made Me not known to them." -- JPS.

    Reading it interrogatively, ". . . and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Almighty, but by My name Jehovah did I not make Me known to them?"

    The KJV, ". . . And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by [the name of] God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them."

    Just add the question mark, ". . . And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by [the name of] God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them?"

    As JEHOVAH:
    Abraham, Genesis 12:7:8; 15:7,8.
    Isaac, Genesis 26:24,25.
    Jacob, Genesis 32:9.

    As God Almighty:
    Abraham, Genesis 17:1.
    Isaac,Genesis 28:3.
    Jacob, Genesis 35:10, 11.

    Notice the above references, by His Name first then latter by God Almighty.
    Yes, agree that he was known by other names in the Torah - however, and the point, is that these names were used by the prophets on how God was made known - to them.

    "I am the LORD; 3 and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God Almighty (El Shaddai), but by My name, LORD, I did not make Myself known to them.…

    noting in the article:
    "but they had not yet experienced its realization as God who “does and fulfills"

    and Ezekiel: “I the Lord have spoken and I will act” (22:14; also cf. 12:25, 24:14, 36:36, and 37:14), where the tetragrammaton is used to indicate “saying and doing, … decreeing and fulfilling.”

    According to Benno Jacob, the distinction between the name El Shaddai and the tetragrammaton in our parasha is also reflected in the verbs that are used in conjunction with these two names: “appeared” and “made myself known:”



    El Shaddai
    :


    El Shaddai (Hebrew: אל שדי‎, IPA: [el ʃaˈdːaj]) or just Shaddai is one of the names of the God of Israel. El Shaddai is conventionally translated as God Almighty but while the translation of El as "god" or "lord" in the Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate.

    The name appears 48 times in the Bible, seven times as "El Shaddai" (five times in Genesis, once in Exodus, and once in Ezekiel). It has been conjectured that El Shaddai was therefore the "god of Shaddai".

    The first occurrence of the name is in Genesis 17:1, "And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am El Shaddai; walk before me, and be thou perfect."

    **Yet another suggested meaning of "El Shaddai" is that it is composed of the Hebrew relative particle she- (Shin plus vowel segol followed by dagesh), or, as in this case, as sha- (Shin plus vowel patach followed by a dagesh).[11] The noun containing the dagesh is the Hebrew word dai meaning "enough, sufficient, sufficiency".[12] This is the same word used in the Passover Haggadah, Dayeinu, which means "It would have been enough for us." The song Dayeinu celebrates the various miracles God performed while liberating the Israelites from Egyptian servitude.[13] The Talmud explains it this way, but says that "Shaddai" stands for "Mi she'Amar Dai L'olamo"—"He who said 'Enough' to His world." When he was forming the earth, he stopped the process at a certain point, withholding creation from reaching its full completion, and thus the name embodies God's power to stop creation .[14]***Wikipedia

    Thought:

    D'var Torah: Vayechi

    In this explanation, Rashi tells us that the change in God’s name from El Shaddai to YHVH indicates a change in behavior, that is, from a God who makes promises to a God who fulfills them, and not as the introduction of a new name for God.

    Benno Jacob elaborates on Rashi’s idea, pointing out that when Jacob made his statement to Joseph in Gen. 48:3, Jacob was referring to the nature of God’s revelation to him when he departed BeerSheva for Haran, despite the fact that the text never used the name El Shaddai during that revelation. Instead the text states “And YHVH was standing beside him and He said, ‘I am YHVH’” (Gen. 28:13). Benno Jacob explains that the patriarchs knew the name YHVH as God who “says and promises,” but they had not yet experienced its realization as God who “does and fulfills.”2 The patriarchs clearly knew El Shaddai as God who promises many offspring and much land, while many other later verses outside Genesis that use the Tetragrammaton for God’s name combine the ideas of statement/promise and action/fulfillment, such as Num. 14:35:

    “I the Lord have spoken: Thus will I do.”


    Read this article further: Bar-Ilan University's Parashat Hashavua Study Center
    Parashat Va-Era 5765/ January 8, 2005 - In addition, Benno Jacob further reinforces his view that we are dealing with the manifestation of G-d’s ways in the world and not with His name by pointing to the fact that nowhere in Scripture does the root y–d–‘ (to know) denote making a new name known, rather it always indicates a deeper sort of understanding or a greater awareness (this word, awareness, uses the same Hebrew root, y-d-‘; pp. 144-145). One outstanding example out of the many that he cites comes from the continuation of our parasha: “And you shall know that I, the Lord (Y-H-W-H), [am your G-d]” (Ex. 6:7). According to Jacob, this verse reverberates in contrast to what was said several verses earlier, “but I did not make myself known to them [the patriarchs] by My name Y-H-W-H.”
    Last edited by Marta; 04-25-2016 at 08:49 PM.

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    tWebber
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    Quote Originally Posted by Geert van den Bos View Post
    Rashi said more:




    i.e. he only becomes known as being redeemer , savior.

    Ex. 20:2, "I am the Lord your God who led you out of Egypt out of the house of bondage"

    http://www.chabad.org/holidays/passo...-four-cups.htm




    So only when the Messiah comes God's name will be fully known.

    Which must be the sense of John 1:18,

    No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the bosom of the father, he has made him known.
    John 1? John 17!

    3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. 4 I have brought you glory on earth by finishing the work you gave me to do. 5 And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began.


    Jesus Prays for His Disciples

    6“I have revealed you to those whom you gave me out of the world. They were yours; you gave them to me and they have obeyed your word.


    Holy Father, protect them by the power of your name, the name you gave me, so that they may be one as we are one. 12 While I was with them, I protected them and kept them safe by that name you gave me

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    Quote Originally Posted by Geert van den Bos View Post

    So only when the Messiah comes God's name will be fully known.

    Which must be the sense of John 1:18,

    No one has ever seen God; the only God, who is at the bosom of the father, he has made him known.
    In John 17, the verse reads, "3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you" if God was known as "El Shaddai - God Almighty" the one who promises (to the prophets - Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) then the God at Sinai was "made" known by "My name Y-H-W-H” (to the Israelites) the God who “does and fulfills. Where would this put John 17?

    When reading Luke 1: 54-55, the angel Gabriel came to make the announcement to Mary as the angel Gabriel came to Zacharias. Then there is a immediate reaction to the appearance of Gabriel. In both cases, "Do not be afraid," is addressed to both Zacharias and Mary. Then there is the promise of a son. The point with Mary as to “house” or “to bear” a holy offspring that would be conceived in her by God the Most High Himself. In the Song of Mary as with Zechariah’s Song – both tell of the fulfillment of the promise of salvation. (which would have been the Beginnings) and in John 17, it reads a completion “to make known” as the promise is fulfilled – “that they know you” or “to make known of what was not known”:

    6 “I have revealed you to those whom you gave me out of the world. They were yours; you gave them to me and they have obeyed your word. 7 Now they know that everything you have given me comes from you. 8 For I gave them the words you gave me and they accepted them. They knew with certainty that I came from you, and they believed that you sent me.

    The way that the article reads and by comparison with Genesis & Exodus, was that God spoke, sent visions, then appeared = the fulfillment of the promise: as it is said, And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by [the name of] God Almighty

    - 1The Lord had said to Abram (spoke), “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you (Genesis 12); that the Lord came to Abram in a vision (Genesis 15 – vision ); When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to him (Genesis 17 – then appeared)

    Exodus 3 (Spoke), God called to him from within the bush, “Moses! Moses!” “So God called to Moses, unlike Abraham; God spoke to you from the midst of the fire, you were hearing the sound of words, but you were not seeing a form, only a sound. He told you of His covenant, instructing you to keep the Ten Commandments, and He inscribed them on two stone tablets.' (Deut.4:9-13); God then identifies himself as, “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; Then Shekhinah Glory appeared as a Pillar of Cloud by day and as a Pillar of Fire by night – to lead them on their way; Exodus 33 – God appears
    According to Benno Jacob, the distinction between the name El Shaddai and the tetragrammaton in our parasha is also reflected in the verbs that are used in conjunction with these two names: “appeared” and “made myself known:” In John 17, Jesus made God’s name known to the people -

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    All appearances of the LORD God in the OT were none other than the preincarnate Jesus Christ (John 1:18; John 8:56; John 12:41 - Isaiah 6:5).
    . . . the Gospel of Christ, for it is [the] power of God to salvation to every [one] believing, . . . -- Romans 1:16.

    . . . that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: . . . -- 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4.

    Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ is born of God: . . . -- 1 John 5:1.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Marta View Post
    According to Benno Jacob, the distinction between the name El Shaddai and the tetragrammaton in our parasha is also reflected in the verbs that are used in conjunction with these two names: “appeared” and “made myself known:” In John 17, Jesus made God’s name known to the people -
    To appear is a form of "raah"= to see.

    Genesis 17:1, "vayeira hashem el avram" = and the Lord appeared to Abram.

    Make known is a form of "yada" = to know.

    So you might think there is a connection between the fruit of the tree of knowledge and the name of God.

    Like if profanizing of the name is like the eating of the forbidden fruit.

    John 17:6,

    Ἐφανέρωσά σου τὸ ὄνομα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις οὓς ἔδωκάς μοι ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου.

    φανερόω = make public

    but not for all people,

    only to those that were given to him out of the world.

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