August 25th 2011, 04:13 PM #181
Was most of mark written in the present historic tense?
August 26th 2011, 04:41 PM #182
NA27 Text (Mark 4:22):
οὐ γάρ ἐστιν κρυπτὸν ἐὰν μὴ ἵνα φανερωθῇ, οὐδὲ ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον ἀλλ᾿ ἵνα ἔλθῃ εἰς φανερόν.
ou gar estin krypton ean mē hina phanerōthȩ̄, oude egeneto apokryphon all’ hina elthȩ̄ eis phaneron.
For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light.
Analysis (Zerwick):κρυπτός : hidden, οὐ ... ἐστιν κρυπτόν (neuter) there is nothing hidden.
ἐὰν μή : except.
φανερωθῇ : that it may be made evident, aorist passive subjunctive of φανερόω make visible, clear.
ἐγένετο : aorist of γίνομαι be.
ἀπόκρυφος : hidden away, secret.
ἀλλ᾿ = ἀλλά = ἐὰν μή except ; in Aramaic no distinction is made.
ἔλθῃ : aorist subjunctive of ἔρχομαι come.
φανερός : clear, apparent.
August 27th 2011, 10:26 AM #183
NA27 Text (Mark 4:23):
εἴ τις ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.
ei tis echei ōta akouein akouetō.
If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.
Analysis (Zerwick):τις : enclitic : anyone.
οὖς, ὠτός, τό : ear.
ἀκουέτω : imperative 3rd singular of ἀκούω hear.
August 28th 2011, 07:17 AM #184
NA27 Text (Mark 4:24a):
Καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς· βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε.
Kai elegen autois; blepete ti akouete.
He also said to them, “Pay attention to what you hear!"
Analysis (Zerwick):βλέπετε : watch! take note of! (imperative of βλέπω).
τί : indirect interrogative or perhaps for ὅ, what (= that which) you hear.
ἀκούω : hear.
August 29th 2011, 02:43 PM #185
NA27 Text (Mark 4:24b):
ἐν ᾧ μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε μετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν καὶ προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν.
en ō̧h metrō̧ metreite metrēthēsetai hymin kai prostethēsetai hymin.
The same rules you use to judge others will be used by God to judge you—but with even greater severity.
Analysis (Zerwick):μέτρον : (an instrument for measuring) measure.
μετρέω : (verb) measure ; μετρέω (τινί τι) measure/deal out (something to someone) ; if consequent upon verse 24a, the sense could be, "the more attention you pay to what you hear, the better you will understand" but the saying is more easily understood in isolation: "the measure you give (to others) will be the measure you receive (from God)".
μετρηθήσεται : future passive of μετρέω measure.
προστεθήσεται : future passive of προστίθημι add to, give in addition, probably both theological passive.*
*The "theological passive" is a name given to the passive used in order avoid directly mentioning God as agent (BG §236)..
August 30th 2011, 01:52 PM #186
NA27 Text (Mark 4:25):
ὃς γὰρ ἔχει, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ· καὶ ὃς οὐκ ἔχει, καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.
hos gar echei, dothēsetai autō̧; kai hos ouk echei, kai ho echei arthēsetai ap’ autou.
For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.
Analysis (Zerwick):ὃς ... ἔχει ... αὐτῷ : he who has, to him..., i.e. to him who has, more will be given.
δοθήσεται : future passive of δίδωμι give.
ἀρθήσεται : future passive of αἴρω take away.
καὶ ὃ ἔχει : even what he has, subject of ἀρθήσεται; English would more naturally say, "the one who has not will lose (in the sense of 'be deprived of') even what he has".
August 31st 2011, 02:02 PM #187
NA27 Text (Mark 4:26):
Καὶ ἔλεγεν· οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς ἄνθρωπος βάλῃ τὸν σπόρον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς
Kai elegen; houtōs estin hē basileia tou theou hōs anthrōpos balȩ̄ ton sporon epi tēs gēs
He also said, ‘This is what the kingdom of God is like. A man scatters seed on the land.
Analysis (Zerwick):Καὶ ἔλεγεν· οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς ἄνθρωπος : with regard to the kingdom of God, it is as if a man...
ὡς ... βάλῃ : aorist subjunctive of βάλλω throw, here scatter ; the use of the subjunctive here and in five following verbs demands that ὡς = ὡς ἐάν as if.
σπόρος : seed.
September 1st 2011, 10:26 AM #188
NA27 Text (Mark 4:27):
καὶ καθεύδῃ καὶ ἐγείρηται νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν, καὶ ὁ σπόρος βλαστᾷ καὶ μηκύνηται ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός.
kai katheudȩ̄ kai egeirētai nykta kai hēmeran, kai ho sporos blasta̧ kai mēkynētai hōs ouk oiden autos.
He sleeps and rises night and day, and the seed sprouts and grows; he knows not how.
Analysis (Zerwick):καθεύδῃ : subjunctive of καθεύδω sleep.
ἐγείρηται : rise, be up subjunctive passive intransitive of ἐγείρω.
νύκτα (νύξ) καὶ ἡμέραν : accusative of extent (of time), night and day ; night precedes day because the day was regarded as beginning with sundown.
βλαστᾷ : subjunctive (same form as indicative) of βλαστάω sprout.
μηκύνηται : passive subjunctive of μηκύνω (< μῆκος length) lengthen ; passive become long, grow.
ὡς οὐκ οἶδεν αὐτός : either how, he knows not or while he is all unknowing.
September 2nd 2011, 02:39 PM #189
NA27 Text (Mark 4:28):
αὐτομάτη ἡ γῆ καρποφορεῖ, πρῶτον χόρτον εἶτα στάχυν εἶτα πλήρη[ς] σῖτον ἐν τῷ στάχυϊ.
automatē hē gē karpophorei, prōton chorton eita stachyn eita plērē[s] siton en tō̧ stachui.
The earth produces by itself, first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear.
Analysis (Zerwick):αὐτόματος : used with adverbial force, of its own accord, by itself.
καρποφορέω : bear fruit
χόρτος : grass ; i.e. blade of the first leaves.
εἶτα : then, next.
στάχυς, -υος, ὁ : ear of grain.
πλήρης : full.
σῖτος : wheat, grain.
September 3rd 2011, 01:12 PM #190
NA27 Text (Mark 4:29):
ὅταν δὲ παραδοῖ ὁ καρπός, εὐθὺς ἀποστέλλει τὸ δρέπανον, ὅτι παρέστηκεν ὁ θερισμός.
hotan de paradoi ho karpos, euthys apostellei to drepanon, hoti parestēken ho therismos.
But when the grain is ripe, at once he puts in the sickle, because the harvest has come.
Analysis (Zerwick):ὅταν : (with subjunctive) when.
παραδοῖ : aorist subjunctive of παραδίδωμι hand over, deliver ; also allow, "when the crop allows", i.e. "when the grain is ripe".
καρπός : fruit, also crop.
ἀποστέλλω : a literal translation of a Hebrew verb "send, put out" the hand, sickle etc. = sends out the reapers.
δρέπανον : sickle.
παρέστηκεν : perfect (intransitive) with present meaning of παρίστημι bring, offer ; in intransitive tenses come up to ; perfect stand by, be present, have come.
θερισμός : harvest.
September 4th 2011, 01:28 PM #191
NA27 Text (Mark 4:30):
Καὶ ἔλεγεν· πῶς ὁμοιώσωμεν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ ἐν τίνι αὐτὴν παραβολῇ θῶμεν;
Kai elegen; pōs homoiōsōmen tēn basileian tou theou ē en tini autēn parabolȩ̄ thōmen?
And he said, "With what can we compare the kingdom of God, or what parable shall we use for it?
Analysis (Zerwick):ὁμοιώσωμεν : aorist subjunctive (deliberative) of ὁμοιόω make like, compare to, "how are we to make a comparison of?" "to what can we compare?"
ἐν : (instrumental) by.
παραβολή : comparison, illustration, parable.
θῶμεν : aorist subjunctive of τίθημι lay, put ; here: set forth, represent.
September 5th 2011, 10:31 AM #192
NA27 Text (Mark 4:31):
ὡς κόκκῳ σινάπεως, ὃς ὅταν σπαρῇ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, μικρότερον ὂν πάντων τῶν σπερμάτων τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς,
hōs kokkō̧ sinapeōs, hos hotan sparȩ̄ epi tēs gēs, mikroteron on pantōn tōn spermatōn tōn epi tēs gēs,
It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when sown on the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on earth
Analysis (Zerwick):κόκκος : grain, of a seed.
σίναπι, -εως, τό : mustard.
σπαρῇ : aorist passive subjunctive of σπείρω sow.
μικρότερος : comparative of μικρός small ; neuter as if not referring back to κόκκος but anticipating σπέρμα : μικρότερον ... πάντων either smaller than any... or comparative for superlative, smallest of all...
ὂν : participle of εἰμί concessive, "though being" i.e. though it is.
σπέρμα : seed.
September 6th 2011, 02:57 PM #193
NA27 Text (Mark 4:32):
καὶ ὅταν σπαρῇ, ἀναβαίνει καὶ γίνεται μεῖζον πάντων τῶν λαχάνων καὶ ποιεῖ κλάδους μεγάλους, ὥστε δύνασθαι ὑπὸ τὴν σκιὰν αὐτοῦ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνοῦν.
kai hotan sparȩ̄, anabainei kai ginetai meizon pantōn tōn lachanōn kai poiei kladous megalous, hōste dynasthai hypo tēn skian autou ta peteina tou ouranou kataskēnoun.
yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes larger than all the garden plants and puts out large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade.
Analysis (Zerwick):ἀναβαίνω : (of plants) grow/come up.
μείζων masculine and feminine μείζον neuter : bigger comparative of μέγας large, great.
λάχανον : vegetable.
ποιέω : put out branches.
κλάδος : branch.
ὥστε : (with infinitive) consecutive so that (as a result).
δύνασθαι : infinitive of δύναμαι can, be able.
ὑπό : (with accusative) under.
σκιά : shadow, shade.
πετεινόν : bird.
κατασκηνοῦν : infinitive of κατασκηνόω take up one's abode, settle ; here roost.
September 7th 2011, 10:18 AM #194
NA27 Text (Mark 4:33):
Καὶ τοιαύταις παραβολαῖς πολλαῖς ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν·
Kai toiautais parabolais pollais elalei autois ton logon kathōs ēdynanto akouein;
With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it.
Analysis (Zerwick):τοιοῦτος : such, of this kind.
ἐλάλει : imperfect of λαλέω speak.
ἠδύναντο : imperfect of δύναμαι be able.
ἀκούειν : infinitive of ἀκούω hear : here with sense of follow, understand.
September 8th 2011, 02:07 PM #195
NA27 Text (Mark 4:34):
χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς οὐκ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς, κατ᾿ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς ἰδίοις μαθηταῖς ἐπέλυεν πάντα.
chōris de parabolēs ouk elalei autois, kat’ idian de tois idiois mathētais epelyen panta.
He did not speak to them without a parable, but privately to his own disciples he explained everything.
Analysis (Zerwick):χωρίς : (with genitive) apart from, without.
ἴδιος : one's own, but sometimes in Hellenistic Greek no more than his ; κατ᾿ ἰδίαν privately, alone.
ἐπέλυεν : imperfect of ἐπιλύω explain.
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