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Thread: The relationship between the brain, mind, thoughts, and consciousness.

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    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    The relationship between the brain, mind, thoughts, and consciousness.

    Seer banned me from his thread 'Are Thoughts Causal?' because I actually cited scientific research and other sources he could not respond to.There for tis thread is for more specific scientific references, and well cited philosophical positions on the brain, mind, thoughts, and consciousness. I support the view that the mind, consciousness, and thoughts cannot be separated, and they are a product of the brain.

    The following research previous cited and not responded to supports this view. Different areas of the brain coordinate in the thinking process of changing your mind as your thought are taking place.

    Source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-neuroscience-of-changing-your-mind/



    The Neuroscience of Changing Your Mind

    Scientists have long accepted that our ability to abruptly stop or modify a planned behavior is controlled via a single region within the brain’s prefrontal cortex, an area involved in planning and other higher mental functions. By studying other parts of the brain in both humans and monkeys, however, a team from Johns Hopkins University has now concluded that last-minute decision-making is a lot more complicated than previously known, involving complex neural coordination among multiple brain areas. The revelations may help scientists unravel certain aspects of addictive behaviors and understand why accidents like falls grow increasingly common as we age, according to the Johns Hopkins team.

    The findings, published recently in Neuron, reveal reneging on an intended behavior involves coordinated cross talk between several brain regions. As a result, changing our minds even mere milliseconds after making a decision is often too late to alter a movement or behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging—a technique that monitors brain activity in real time—the Johns Hopkins group found reversing a decision requires ultrafast communication between two specific zones within the prefrontal cortex and another nearby structure called the frontal eye field, an area involved in controlling eye movements and visual awareness.

    Lead author Kitty Xu, formerly a Johns Hopkins graduate student and now a researcher at the social media site Pinterest, explains that when it comes to split-second decisions, the longer a decision has to take hold in the brain, the harder it is to reverse. “Stopping a planned behavior requires extremely fast choreography between several distinct areas of the brain, our research found,” she says. “If we change our mind about pressing the gas pedal even a few milliseconds after the original “go” message has been sent to our muscles, we simply can’t stop.” Xu adds that if we change our minds within roughly 100 milliseconds of making a decision, we can successfully revise our plans. If we wait more than 200 milliseconds, however, we may be unable to make the desired change—in other words we may land a speeding ticket or a tumble down the stairs. As we age, our neural communication slows, and that likely contributes to more of these glitches, Xu says.

    To identify the brain regions involved in canceling a decision, the new study recruited 21 subjects for a modified “stop signal task,” a commonly used neuroscientific behavioral test that involves canceling a planned movement. Participants undergoing functional MRI were instructed to watch a screen and to immediately stare at a black dot when it appeared. But just after they focused on the black dot a colored dot would appear, prompting their gaze to shift to the new stimulus—essentially causing them to abandon their initial plan to fix their eyes on the black dot. The researchers watched what areas of the brain lit up during those decision-making steps, and after the volunteers terminated their plan. To confirm their findings, the authors then ran the same experiment on a single macaque. Using an implanted electrode, they saw activation in monkey brain regions analogous to those reported on in humans when the monkey stopped looking at the black circle in favor of the colored dots.

    Tracking these eye movements and neural action let the researchers resolve the very confusing question of what brain areas are involved in these split-second decisions, says Vanderbilt University neuroscientist Jeffrey Schall, who was not involved in the research. “By combining human functional brain imaging with nonhuman primate neurophysiology, [the investigators] weave together threads of research that have too long been separate strands,” he says. “If we can understand how the brain stops or prevents an action, we may gain ability to enhance that stopping process to afford individuals more control over their choices.”

    Xu hopes these insights into how difficult it is for the brain to amend its plans—a task that only gets harder as we age and neural communication slows—can eventually help researchers devise ways to intervene and help us make faster, safer decisions. In the short term she hopes key targets will include helping seniors avoid falls and modifying last-minute impulses in people with addictions.

    © Copyright Original Source

    Last edited by shunyadragon; 07-04-2019 at 03:16 PM.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

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    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    For beginning the following is a start for the scientific view, It reviews the advances in neuroscience that establish the relationship between the brain and the mind. It also reviews some of the ethical and controversial related to the discoveries of these relationships. Some future references will come form AAAS sources on neuroscience, brain and the mind:

    Source: https://www.aaas.org/programs/dialogue-science-ethics-and-religion/neuroscience-brain-mind



    Neuroscience, Brain & Mind

    Why do humans do what they do? What makes us tick? With increasingly sophisticated technology, experts can image, manipulate and scientifically test the human experience to a depth never before realized. Will this technology give us better insight into why we make the decisions we do? Can it help us understand the nature of spiritual experiences? How will understanding the brain affect our self-perception?

    Neuroscience is a rich field devoted to studying the many facets of the nervous system. The nervous system includes both the central nervous system, consisting of a brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system comprised of the nerves that lie in the extremities, muscles, and organs. Not all neuroscientists directly study the brain, but brain research tends to capture the attention and imagination of the modern audience. Some even regard the human brain as the most complex organism in the entire universe. Millions of years of biological and cultural evolution have made it possible for our species to compute patterns in nature, be conscious of ourselves, and empathize with one another. Understanding how all of this occurs is a fascinating challenge.

    Neuroscience research is advancing at a rapid pace, making exciting progress on a wide variety of issues. These range from the slowing of degenerative diseases such as Huntington’s Disease, ALS and Parkinson’s, to discoveries on how the brain develops in early childhood. Many recent advances in neuroscience also highlight ethical questions with both societal and personal consequences. Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI), for example, allow biological organisms to interact with inorganic computers in order to increase a person’s lost or waning mobility. Researchers have found that simply thinking about moving a limb activates dozens of motor-control neurons in the brain, allowing for exterior machines to translate thoughts into movements. Paralyzed patients now have the ability to interact with the physical world in ways otherwise prohibited by their state. This is quite an exciting feat; one can only imagine how far this research will take us.

    On a chemical level, mood-altering drugs researched by neuroscientists cause major changes in temperament and personality. In these cases, what does it mean to “be yourself”? Should people be legally obligated to take certain medications that would decrease their threat to society? Is there research into other organic or holistic cures to neurological imbalances that lead to depression, schizophrenia and addiction? To what extent should we be concerned about the ethical parameters of animal testing, which is essential for this type of research? Unquestionably, the service that neuroscientific research provides is unparalleled, but it is imperative that scientists, policy makers and the public be attuned to both the newest discoveries as well as the philosophical and ethical conundrums they raise.

    Other concerns center on questions with spiritual ramifications such as the relationship between the human brain and mind. Interdisciplinary research in neuroscience, physics, biology, philosophy and even cosmology has sparked interest in the conversation regarding determinism and free will. The premise is that if actions of minute atoms can be measured with such a high degree of certainty, then can larger aspects of the universe which are comprised of these atoms also be determined with a keenly devised prescription? Do these predictions extend to choices we make, our personalities, and our future? Can we assume biology, conditioning, and probabilistic calculations have declared moot our ability to choose? Theologically speaking, do these determined actions affect our ability to choose good from evil?

    As scientists discover more functions and locations of brain activity, other societal concerns may arise. If empathy is identified at a particular point in the brain, could scientists directly intervene to enhance it? Should criminals with abnormal neurological structure receive the same punishment as others? Is there an experimental result that will disprove the traditional assertion of free will, and how will such conclusions affect religious communities and the basis of our justice systems? With such fundamental questions under consideration, it is essential that these and other issues be explored in tandem with neuroscience’s exciting rise from theory to practice.

    © Copyright Original Source



    I do believe that the mind, thoughts, thinking, consciousness cannot specifically separated from each other, nor the neurological function of the brain
    Last edited by shunyadragon; 07-05-2019 at 06:58 PM.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

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    tWebber seer's Avatar
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    Shuny, do you wonder why others don't want to play with you?
    Atheism is the cult of death, the death of hope. The universe is doomed, you are doomed, the only thing that remains is to await your execution...

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    See, the Thing is... Cow Poke's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by seer View Post
    Shuny, do you wonder why others don't want to play with you?
    So, what's your favorite firearm?
    Every problem is the result of a previous solution.

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    tWebber seer's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Cow Poke View Post
    So, what's your favorite firearm?
    Long gun - classic M14, pistol, The Judge. And you?
    Atheism is the cult of death, the death of hope. The universe is doomed, you are doomed, the only thing that remains is to await your execution...

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    See, the Thing is... Cow Poke's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by seer View Post
    Long gun - classic M14, pistol, The Judge. And you?
    The Judge is a new addition to my collection - haven't had an opportunity to fire it yet. I'm still kinda partial to my Ruger .357 Security Six.
    Every problem is the result of a previous solution.

  7. Amen seer amen'd this post.
  8. #7
    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by seer View Post
    Shuny, do you wonder why others don't want to play with you?
    . . . because I do not play, I cite research to support my argument, and no one has refuted nor responded to the research, especially you.

    You made bogus citations of Sam Harris who is an atheist, and does not believe that consciousness even exists. Therefore consciousness is not a problem him.

    You have misrepresented me concerning my belief many times. I believe the soul exists, but it is independent of the mind, thought and consciousness which is directly a product of the brain as the evidence indicates.
    Last edited by shunyadragon; 07-06-2019 at 11:43 AM.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

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    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    This research describes the mind and consciousness as emergent from the brain and 'orchestrated interactions among different brain areas,' as the previous research shows, and not separate.

    Source: http://www.aggiornamento.net/2019/07/02/mystery-of-the-mind/



    How the Mind Emerges from the Brain's Complex Networks

    The new discipline of network neuroscience yields a picture of how mental activity arises from carefully orchestrated interactions among different brain areas

    By Max Bertolero, Danielle S. Bassett

    IN BRIEF

    How does the brain give rise to who we are? This question has led to the new field of network neuroscience, which uses a branch of mathematics, graph theory, to model the brain connections that let us read, calculate, or simply sit and tap our fingers.

    Graph theory, which is also used by chemists, quantum field theorists and linguists, models the physical pathways that build functional networks from which our cognitive capacities emerge, whether for vision, attention or self-control.

    By understanding networks at increasing levels of abstraction, researchers have begun to bridge the gap between matter and mind. Practical benefits could entail new ways of diagnosing and treating disorders such as depression.

    Networks pervade our lives. Every day we use intricate networks of roads, railways, maritime routes and skyways traversed by commercial flights. They exist even beyond our immediate experience. Think of the World Wide Web, the power grid and the universe, of which the Milky Way is an infinitesimal node in a seemingly boundless network of galaxies. Few such systems of interacting connections, however, match the complexity of the one underneath our skull.

    Neuroscience has gained a higher profile in recent years, as many people have grown familiar with splashily colored images that show brain regions “lighting up” during a mental task. There is, for instance, the temporal lobe, the area by your ear, which is involved with memory, and the occipital lobe at the back of your head, which dedicates itself to vision.

    What has been missing from this account of human brain function is how all these distinct regions interact to give rise to who we are. Our laboratory and others have borrowed a language from a branch of mathematics called graph theory that allows us to parse, probe and predict complex interactions of the brain that bridge the seemingly vast gap between frenzied neural electrical activity and an array of cognitive tasks—sensing, remembering, making decisions, learning a new skill and initiating movement. This new field of network neuroscience builds on and reinforces the idea that certain regions of the brain carry out defined activities. In the most fundamental sense, what the brain is—and thus who we are as conscious beings—is, in fact, defined by a sprawling network of 100 billion neurons with at least 100 trillion connecting points, or synapses.

    Network neuroscience seeks to capture this complexity. We can now model the data supplied by brain imaging as a graph composed of nodes and edges. In a graph, nodes represent the units of the network, such as neurons or, in another context, airports. Edges serve as the connections between nodes—think of one neuron intertwined to the next or contemplate airline flight routes. In our work, the human brain is reduced to a graph of roughly 300 nodes. Diverse areas can be linked together by edges representing the brain’s structural connections: thick bundles of tubular wires called white matter tracts that tie together brain regions. This depiction of the brain as a unified network has already furnished a clearer picture of cognitive functioning, along with the practical benefit of enabling better diagnoses and treatment of psychiatric disorders. As we glimpse ahead, an understanding of brain networks may lead to a blueprint for improved artificial intelligence, new medicines and electrical-stimulation technology to alter malfunctioning neural circuitry in depression—and perhaps also the development of genetic therapies to treat mental illness.

    © Copyright Original Source

    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

  10. #9
    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by seer View Post
    Long gun - classic M14, pistol, The Judge. And you?
    Mindless responses. The request was made for scientific evidence for the relationship between the brain and mind, and I provided scientific research in response with no coherent responses in return.

    Is your only basis for claiming consciousness is a hard problem a reference by Sam HArris who believes consciousness does not exist? Do you realize he is an atheist eliminativist, and bases his assertion on the philosophy that only the mind exists dependent on the brain, and that is all that exists?
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

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    tWebber MaxVel's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by shunyadragon View Post
    Mindless responses. The request was made for scientific evidence for the relationship between the brain and mind, and I provided scientific research in response with no coherent responses in return.

    Is your only basis for claiming consciousness is a hard problem a reference by Sam HArris who believes consciousness does not exist? Do you realize he is an atheist eliminativist, and bases his assertion on the philosophy that only the mind exists dependent on the brain, and that is all that exists?

    I'm not at all sure that you understand what is meant by 'the hard problem' with reference to the mind. Given that, your thread here is quite possibly misdirected.
    ...>>> Witty remark or snarky quote of another poster goes here <<<...

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