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Thread: Mammal fossil contributes to the adaptation of subspecies to different environments.

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    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    Mammal fossil contributes to the adaptation of subspecies to different environments.

    This is an interesting article that does report an interesting fossil discovery that contributes to our knowledge of the evolution of mammals, but it is a layman's article that makes a lot of mistakes making unscientific claims concerning the importance of the discovery in terms of what is falsified and demonstrated concerning the advancement of our knowledge of evolution.

    Source: https://www.heritagedaily.com/2020/03/one-of-Darwin's-evolution-theories-finally-proved-by-cambridge-researcher/126575



    One of Darwin’s evolution theories finally proved by Cambridge researcher

    Scientists have proved one of Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution for the first time – nearly 140 years after his death.
    Laura van Holstein, a PhD student in Biological Anthropology at St John’s College, University of Cambridge, and lead author of the research published today (March 18) in Proceedings of the Royal Society, discovered mammal subspecies play a more important role in evolution than previously thought.

    Her research could now be used to predict which species conservationists should focus on protecting to stop them becoming endangered or extinct.

    A species is a group of animals that can interbreed freely amongst themselves. Some species contain subspecies – populations within a species that differ from each other by having different physical traits and their own breeding ranges. Northern giraffes have three subspecies that usually live in different locations to each other and red foxes have the most subspecies – 45 known varieties – spread all over the world. Humans have no subspecies.

    van Holstein said: “We are standing on the shoulders of giants. In Chapter 3 of On the Origin of Species Darwin said animal lineages with more species should also contain more ‘varieties’. Subspecies is the modern definition. My research investigating the relationship between species and the variety of subspecies proves that sub-species play a critical role in long-term evolutionary dynamics and in future evolution of species. And they always have, which is what Darwin suspected when he was defining what a species actually was.”

    The anthropologist confirmed Darwin’s hypothesis by looking at data gathered by naturalists over hundreds of years ¬- long before Darwin famously visited the Galapagos Islands on-board HMS Beagle. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, was first published in 1859 after Darwin returned home from a five-year voyage of discovery. In the seminal book, Darwin argued that organisms gradually evolved through a process called ‘natural selection’ – often known as survival of the fittest. His pioneering work was considered highly controversial because it contradicted the Bible’s account of creation.

    van Holstein’s research also proved that evolution happens differently in land mammals (terrestrial) and sea mammals and bats (non-terrestrial)¬ because of differences in their habitats and differences in their ability to roam freely.

    van Holstein said: “We found the evolutionary relationship between mammalian species and subspecies differs depending on their habitat. Subspecies form, diversify and increase in number in a different way in non-terrestrial and terrestrial habitats, and this in turn affects how subspecies may eventually become species. For example, if a natural barrier like a mountain range gets in the way, it can separate animal groups and send them off on their own evolutionary journeys. Flying and marine mammals – such as bats and dolphins – have fewer physical barriers in their environment.”

    The research explored whether subspecies could be considered an early stage of speciation – the formation of a new species. van Holstein said: “The answer was yes. But evolution isn’t determined by the same factors in all groups and for the first time we know why because we’ve looked at the strength of the relationship between species richness and subspecies richness.”

    The research acts as another scientific warning that the human impact on the habitat of animals will not only affect them now, but will affect their evolution in the future. This information could be used by conservationists to help them determine where to focus their efforts.

    van Holstein explained: “Evolutionary models could now use these findings to anticipate how human activity like logging and deforestation will affect evolution in the future by disrupting the habitat of species. The impact on animals will vary depending on how their ability to roam, or range, is affected. Animal subspecies tend to be ignored, but they play a pivotal role in longer term future evolution dynamics.”

    van Holstein is now going to look at how her findings can be used to predict the rate of speciation from endangered species and non-endangered species.

    Notes to editors: What Darwin said on page 55 in ‘On the Origin of Species’: “From looking at species as only strongly-marked and well-defined varieties, I was led to anticipate that the species of the larger genera in each country would oftener present varieties, than the species of the smaller genera; for wherever many closely related species (i.e species of the same genus) have been formed, many varieties or incipient species ought, as a general role, to be now forming. Where many large trees grow, we expect to find saplings.”

    Datasets: Most of the data is from Wilson and Reeder’s Mammal Species Of The World, a global collated database of mammalian taxonomy. The database contains hundreds of years’ worth of work by taxonomists from all over the world. The current way of “doing” taxonomy goes all the way back to botanist Carl Linnaeus (1735), so the accumulation of knowledge is the combined work of all taxonomists since then.

    © Copyright Original Source



    The most important flaws are: (!) Nothing is proven in science much less evolution. Evolution is indeed falsified beyond any reasonable doubt based on the current available evidence. (2) I do not believe that this discovery makes a significant contribution to 'Her research could now be used to predict which species conservationists should focus on protecting to stop them becoming endangered or extinct.' (3) The terminology is poor describing the importance of the discovery.
    Last edited by shunyadragon; 03-18-2020 at 03:17 PM.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

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  2. #2
    Evolution is God's ID rogue06's Avatar
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    When you realize that your source has issues it's best to look for others.

    Here is the abstract:

    Source: Terrestrial habitats decouple the relationship between species and subspecies diversification in mammals


    Darwin proposed that lineages with higher diversification rates should evidence this capacity at both the species and subspecies level. This should be the case if subspecific boundaries are evolutionary faultlines along which speciation is generally more likely to occur. This pattern has been described for birds, but remains poorly understood in mammals. To investigate the relationship between species richness (SR) and subspecies richness (SSR), we calculated the strength of the correlation between the two across all mammals. Mammalian taxonomic richness correlates positively, but only very weakly, between the species and subspecies level, deviating from the pattern found in birds. However, when mammals are separated by environmental substrate, the relationship between generic SR and average SSR in non-terrestrial taxa is stronger than that reported for birds (Kendall's tau = 0.31, p < 0.001). By contrast, the correlation in terrestrial taxa alone weakens compared to that for all mammals (Kendall's tau = 0.11, p < 0.001). A significant interaction between environmental substrate and SR in phylogenetic regressions confirms a role for terrestrial habitats in disrupting otherwise linked dynamics of diversification across the taxonomic hierarchy. Further, models including species range size as a predictor show that range size affects SSR more in terrestrial taxa. Taken together, these results suggest that the dynamics of diversification of terrestrial mammals are more affected by physical barriers or ecological heterogeneity within ranges than those of non-terrestrial mammals, at two evolutionary levels. We discuss the implication of these results for the equivalence of avian and mammalian subspecies, their potential role in speciation and the broader question of the relationship between microevolution and macroevolution.

    Source

    © Copyright Original Source




    And a few other news reports in the press:




    And a press release from St. John's College University of Cambridge

    I'm always still in trouble again

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    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by rogue06 View Post
    When you realize that your source has issues it's best to look for others.

    Here is the abstract:

    Source: Terrestrial habitats decouple the relationship between species and subspecies diversification in mammals


    Darwin proposed that lineages with higher diversification rates should evidence this capacity at both the species and subspecies level. This should be the case if subspecific boundaries are evolutionary faultlines along which speciation is generally more likely to occur. This pattern has been described for birds, but remains poorly understood in mammals. To investigate the relationship between species richness (SR) and subspecies richness (SSR), we calculated the strength of the correlation between the two across all mammals. Mammalian taxonomic richness correlates positively, but only very weakly, between the species and subspecies level, deviating from the pattern found in birds. However, when mammals are separated by environmental substrate, the relationship between generic SR and average SSR in non-terrestrial taxa is stronger than that reported for birds (Kendall's tau = 0.31, p < 0.001). By contrast, the correlation in terrestrial taxa alone weakens compared to that for all mammals (Kendall's tau = 0.11, p < 0.001). A significant interaction between environmental substrate and SR in phylogenetic regressions confirms a role for terrestrial habitats in disrupting otherwise linked dynamics of diversification across the taxonomic hierarchy. Further, models including species range size as a predictor show that range size affects SSR more in terrestrial taxa. Taken together, these results suggest that the dynamics of diversification of terrestrial mammals are more affected by physical barriers or ecological heterogeneity within ranges than those of non-terrestrial mammals, at two evolutionary levels. We discuss the implication of these results for the equivalence of avian and mammalian subspecies, their potential role in speciation and the broader question of the relationship between microevolution and macroevolution.

    Source

    © Copyright Original Source




    And a few other news reports in the press:




    And a press release from St. John's College University of Cambridge
    Looks like the blind men trying to describe an elephant
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

  4. #4
    Evolution is God's ID rogue06's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by shunyadragon View Post
    Looks like the blind men trying to describe an elephant
    And that made absolutely no sense whatsoever.

    I'm always still in trouble again

    "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
    "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

  5. #5
    tWebber shunyadragon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by rogue06 View Post
    And that made absolutely no sense whatsoever.
    You missed the analogy. i consider many layman science articles written by layman who are blind men trying to describe an elephant. An old Hindu proverb.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

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