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Thread: Religion Unnecessary In Science Classroom

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    Religion Unnecessary In Science Classroom

    IT'S HISTORY.

    It's already in a classroom, the History Classroom.
    ...well, at least the Christian Religion, i.e., The Historical Jesus.

    ok, I know what you're thinking, here we go again, references to Josephus, and Jesus' brother's martyrdom (James) , and Tacitus’ The Annals, Book XV, Lucian’s The Death of Peregrine, Sanhedrin 43a of the Babylonian Talmud, and the letters of Pliny the Younger and Emperor Trajan.
    But no, not this time.
    This post is about the Christian Religion's presence in the serious history genre.
    . Specifically, WORLD HISTORY TEXTBOOKS.

    IMHO, there is no need to invade Science classrooms with religious history, since religious history is already represented in World History Class TEXTBOOKS
    Here are 7 of them from my bookshelf, there's more at the local library, but its too cold to go outside today:

    Source: WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY Farah, Karls


    WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY Farah, Karls, page 172 1999 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill ISBN 0028215761
    Jesus of Nazareth
    A few decades before the Jewish revolts, a Jew named Jesus grew up in the town of Nazareth. With deep spiritual fervor, Jesus traveled through Galilee and Judea from about A.D.30 to A.D.33, preaching a new message to his fellow Jews and winning disciples, or followers. Proclaiming that God’s rule was close at hand, Jesus urged people to turn away from their sins and practice deeds of kindness. He said that God was loving and forgiving toward all who repented, no matter what evil they had done or how lowly they were. In his teaching, Jesus often used parables, or symbolic stories. With the parable below, Jesus urged his followers to give up everything so that they would be ready for God’s coming:

    “The kingdom of heaven is like treasure lying buried in a field. The man who found it, buried it again; and for sheer joy went and sold everything he had, and bought that field.” Matthew 13:44-46.
    Jesus’ disciples believed that he was the messiah; other Jews believing that the messiah had yet to come, disputed this claim. The growing controversy over Jesus troubled Roman officials in Palestine. They believed that anyone who aroused such strong public feelings could endanger Roman rule in the region. In about A.D.33, the Roman governor Pontius Pilate arrested Jesus as a political rebel and ordered that he be crucified – hung from a cross until dead. This was a typical Roman way of punishing criminals.

    The Spread of Christianity
    After Jesus’ death, his disciples proclaimed that he had risen from the dead and had appeared to them. They pointed to this as evidence that Jesus was the messiah. His followers began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God and the way of salvation. Small groups in the Hellenistic cities of the eastern Mediterranean world accepted this message, Jews and non-Jews who accepted Jesus and his teachings became known as Christians – Christos was Greek for “messiah.” They formed churches – communities for worship, fellowship and instruction. A convert named Paul aided Christianity’s spread, especially among non-Jews. He traveled widely and wrote on behalf of the new religion. Paul’s letters to various churches were later combined with the Gospels, or stories about Jesus, and the writings of other early Christian leaders. Together, these works form the New Testament of the Bible. Meanwhile, other apostles, or Christian missionaries, spread Christianity throughout the Roman world. It is believed that Peter, the leader of the group, came to Rome, and helped found a church in that city. Other churches were set up in Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and later in Gaul and Spain.

    source

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    Source: A HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD by Chester G. Starr


    A HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT WORLD by Chester G. Starr pages 608-610, ISBN 0195066286
    Teachings of Christ
    For the historian to discuss in detail the life of Jesus would be both presumptuous and unsound. The source material is almost entirely in the Gospels; and these records of the works and words of Jesus were not written down until the first flush of hope that He would soon return had passed away. The Gospel according to Mark is generally considered to be the oldest, perhaps composed about A.D. 65 by a follower of Peter at Rome. The information which this evidence gives was certainly intended to show that teachings and passions of Jesus as a proof that God had committed Himself to the flow of human life, but it was not rigorously historical. The date of the birth of Christ must be 4 B.C. if He were born under Herod the Great (d. 4 B.C.) – the conventional reckoning of 1 B.C./A.D. 1 we know to be an erroneous product of the sixth century after Christ – yet Luke connects the event with a Roman census when Palestine became a province in A.D. 6. So too the date of Christ’s baptism is insecure; the length of His ministry is estimated at one to three years as a rule; the Crucifixion can be set only as probably occurring in A.D. 29, 30, or 33. The teachings of Jesus are another matter. Their basic line was one in keeping with that of the earlier prophets and had points of contact with the more radical Jewish thought which is shown in the Dead Sea scrolls. But the exhortations of Jesus well up in the Gospels as a unique personal message pitched in terms that, in their simplicity, would enter the hearts of contemporary auditors and yet, in their subtlety, could baffle divines over the centuries. Jesus announced that the Messiah was to come not to bring rule on earth as most of His fellow Jews believed, but to usher in the Last Judgment; and that until that point men must lead a moral life, loving their fellow men and God. The virtues of the Sermon on the Mount – humility, charity, brotherly love – were not those of the Greco-Roman world; but in time they were to become the ethical standards of the western world.

    In earthly terms the life of Jesus could scarcely be termed successful. A carpenter of poor education, He was baptized by another religious enthusiast, the ascetic John the Baptist, who preached righteousness and the divine judgment with such power that Herod Antipas had him suppressed. Neither the doctrines of Jesus nor their popularity among common folk were likely to win Him the favor of the upper classes in the uneasy conditions of Palestine. Jesus neatly avoided the trap of being made to appear anti-Roman in the famous story of the tribute money, ending “render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s”; but once He had entered Jerusalem, the end drew inexorably nearer. The Gospel accounts waver between trying to pin the blame on the Jews and on the Romans. No one, however, who was in a position of responsibility wished to allow a possible focus of insurrection, and the equestrian prefect Pontius Pilate passed the final judgment on political grounds. Crucifixion was a mode of execution reserved for slaves and the poorest elements until Constantine abolished it. The thought that the founder of Christianity had died thus so irked educated men that at times they argued He had suffered only in appearance; and the cross was late in becoming a symbol in Christian art. Yet the voluntary sacrifice by the Son of God for the salvation of His fellow men was a fundamental proof for Christianity. As Paul fiercely put it, “We preach Christ crucified, a stumbling-block to Jews and folly to the Gentiles . . . if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain.” The question of the Resurrection on the third day is as little subject to historical judgment as are the miracles reported throughout His ministry; what matters historically is that His followers believed and that the small group about the disciples carried on.

    source

    © Copyright Original Source


    Source: THE ESSENTIAL WORLD HISTORY by William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel


    THE ESSENTIAL WORLD HISTORY by William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel, Page 112 ISBN 0534578896

    THE JEWISH BACKGROUND
    In Hellenistic times, the Jews had been granted considerable independence by their Selucid rulers. By 6 C.E., however, Judaea (the lands of the old Jewish kingdom of Judah) had been made a Roman province and placed under the direction of a Roman procurator. But unrest continued, augmented by divisions among the Jews themselves. The Sadducees favored cooperation with the Romans. The Pharisees, although they wanted Judaea to be free from Roman control, did not advocate violent means to achieve this goal. The Essenes were a Jewish sect that lived in a religious community near the Dead Sea. They, like most other Jews, awaited a messiah who would save Israel from oppression, usher in the kingdom of God, and establish paradise on earth. A fourth group, the Zealots, were militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Roman rule. A Jewish revolt in 66 C.E. was crushed by the Romans four years later. The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed, and Roman power once more stood supreme in Judaea.

    THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
    It was in the midst of the confusion and conflict in Judaea that Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 B.C.E.-c. 29 C.E.) began his public preaching. Jesus—a Palestinian Jew—grew up in Galilee, an important center of the militant Zealots. Jesus’ message was simple. He reassured his fellow Jews that he did not plan to undermine their traditional religion. “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” According to Jesus, what was important was not strict adherence to the letter of the law but the transformation of the inner person: “So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.” God’s command was simple—to love God and one another: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. The second is this: Love your neighbor as yourself.” In the Sermon on the Mount (see the box on p. 113). Jesus presented the ethical concepts—humility, charity, and brotherly love—that would form the basis of the value system of medieval Western civilization. To the Roman authorities of Palestine, Jesus was seen as a potential revolutionary who might transform Jewish expectations of a messianic kingdom into a revolt against Rome. Therefore, Jesus found himself denounced on many sides, and the procurator Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion. But that did not solve the problem. A few loyal followers of Jesus spread the story that Jesus had overcome death, had been resurrected, and had then ascended into heaven. The belief in Jesus’ resurrection became an important tenet of Christian doctrine. Jesus was now hailed “the anointed one” (Christ in Greek), the Messiah who would return and usher in the kingdom of God on earth.

    source

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    Source: THE WORLD’S HISTORY Combined Edition Howard Spodek


    THE WORLD’S HISTORY Combined Edition Howard Spodek, Page 296-298 ISBN 0136444695 PRENTICE HALL

    CHRISTIANITY EMERGES FROM JUDAISM
    At about the time of the Roman exile, a splinter group within the Jewish people formed around the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Disdained by segments of the Jewish religious establishment as a heretic and feared by the Roman imperialists as a potential revolutionary, Jesus was exalted by his followers as one specially chosen and anointed by God (Messiah in Hebrew, Christos in Greek). Jesus said that he had come not to abolish the Jewish law but to fulfill it. His followers ultimately accepted much of the moral core of Jewish teachings but rejected most parts of its legal and separatist covenant. They proclaimed Jesus to be the source of eternal life and accepted him as a miracle-worker and the son of God. Initially through the missionary activities of St. Paul, they spread the new faith of Christianity among on-third of humankind.
    CHRISTIANITY
    Jesus Christ, the founder of Christianity, was born to an unmarried Jewish woman and her carpenter fiance' in a manger in Bethlehem, 10 miles (16 kilometers) from Jerusalem, some 2000 years ago. Jesus grew into an astonishingly powerful preacher, who promised eternal life and happiness to the simple, poor, and downtrodden people of colonial Judea if only they would keep their faith in God. As Jesus' fame spread, and came to include a reputation for curing the blind and lame, and even raising the dead, the Jewish religious authorities and the Roman colonial administrators feared his attacks on their establishments. To prevent any potential rebellion, the Roman government crucified him when he was thirty-three years old.
    But death did not stop Jesus' message. His disciples, and especially Paul, a newcomer to the faith who was converted through a miraculous encounter with the dead Jesus, took his message of compassion, salvation, and eternal life to Rome. Although Jesus had avoided the question during his life, his followers now claimed that he was indeed the son of God, born to his mother Mary through a virgin birth. The upper classes of proud Rome scoffed at first, but more and more of the simple people believed. Despite early persecution, Christianity increased in influence, until it became the official religion of the empire. Spread through the networks of the empire, it ultimately became the most important organizing force in post-Roman Europe. The message of compassion and exultation and the organization of the church expanded throughout the world. Today almost 2 billion people, one-third of the world's population, spread among numerous different churches and denominations, declare themselves followers of this son of God, the simple preacher from Judea.

    JESUS’ LIFE, TEACHINGS, AND DISCIPLES
    According to the four gospels, which were written about 70-100 C.E., Jesus’ life and message inspired a core of devoted disciples who embraced his concern [page 298] for the poor and downtrodden and believed that he had accomplished miracles in feeding the multitudes, curing the sick, and even restoring the dead to life. They believed Jesus to be at least in part divine, the son of God, born miraculously through Mary, a virgin betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter from Nazareth. When asked, Jesus did not contradict their assumptions about his identity. After Jesus’ death, his followers believed that he had arisen from the grave and ascended into heaven to join God. Their belief contained equal measures of admiration for his message of compassion and salvation and for his ability to perform miracles. The four gospels present only a sketch of Jesus’ life. They chart more fully his teachings and his charismatic power over his disciples, the men and women who created the religious community of Christianity. Despite conventional dating, Jesus must have been born no later than 4 B.C.E., for Herod, king at the time of his birth, died in that year. Jesus’ family had been living in Galilee, where his father was an artisan. Taken to Jerusalem when he was twelve years old, Jesus asked precocious and disturbing questions of the Temple priests. In Galilee, the beautiful and lush northern region of Judaea, only recently converted to Judaism, he continued his unorthodox search for truth. Toward the end of his life, perhaps frustrated by a lack of success at home, he turned his attentions to Jerusalem, the religious heartland of Judaea. There he continued his preaching, angering both the Jewish religious establishment, which viewed him as a heretic, and the Roman imperial government, which feared his rabble-rousing. The Roman governor of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, had Jesus crucified to avoid possible rebellion.

    source

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    Source: WORLD HISTORY PEOPLE AND NATIONS Anatole G. Mazour and John M. Peoples


    WORLD HISTORY PEOPLE AND NATIONS Anatole G. Mazour and John M. Peoples, Page 163-164 ISBN 0030751977
    The Life and Teachings of Jesus
    Roman histories say very little about Jesus and the early Christians. Our knowledge of Jesus comes mainly from the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John – the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Gospels, Jesus was born in Bethlehem, near Jerusalem, and grew up in the town of Nazareth. He was said to have been a carpenter and a student of the writings of the Jewish prophets. In time he began preaching. As he traveled through the villages of Judea, he gathered a small group of disciples, or followers. From these he chose 12, the Apostles, to help him preach. Jesus spoke of “my Father in heaven,” and his followers believed that Jesus was the Messiah. He traveled with his disciples as a wandering rabbi, depending on the charity of the people for his needs. According to the Gospels, he created great excitement among the people, performing miracles of healing and defending the poor and the oppressed. The teachings of Jesus have become on of the greatest influences on the Western world. He accepted the Ten Commandments as guides to right living but gave them further meaning. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus said:

    “Don’t misunderstand why I have come – it isn’t to cancel the laws of Moses and the warnings of the prophets. No, I come to fulfill them, and to make them all come true.”
    He summarized the 10 rules in two great commandments. People must love God above all else, and they must love others as they love themselves. His many teachings include:
    (1)God cares more for people than for their laws. He desires a new relationship between himself and humans based on his love, to which people respond in faith.
    (2)Jesus saw himself as the link that would reestablish the loving relationship that God desires. Jesus called this new relationship the “Kingdom of God.” The “Kingdom of God” would be both here on earth and in an eternal life beyond this world.
    (3)God will forgive people their sins if they will admit the wrong and ask to be forgiven. People must also forgive one another in recognition of what God has already done for them and must not seek revenge.

    The Death of Jesus
    Jesus claimed that he was the Son of God. When he traveled to Jerusalem in about A.D.30, many Jews there hailed him as the Messiah and as “King of the Jews.” Others, especially the conservative priestly class of Jews, denied that he was the Messiah and regarded him as a revolutionary. The Romans feared that Jesus wanted to lead an uprising, and they considered him an enemy of the state. Jesus was tried before Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor. Pilate acted reluctantly, apparently because he feared the trial would ignite yet another revolt. Eventually, however, he agreed to Jesus’ crucifixion.

    Persecution of the Christians
    At first the Roman government viewed Christians as a Jewish sect and thus freed them from the obligation to worship the emperor,. However, by the A.D. 100s it recognized the difference, and Christians had to make a difficult choice. The early Christians were good citizens. Their religion taught them to respect government, but they refused to worship the emperor as a god. To the emperors this refusal defied Roman religion and law, and they outlawed Christianity, seized Christian property, and executed many Christians. Sometimes the Romans used the Christians as scapegoats, blaming them for natural or political disasters. As the Roman writer Tertullian reported: "If the Tiber floods or the Nile fails to, the cry goes up: the Christians to the lions!" Many Christians became martyrs, put to death because they refused to renounce their beliefs. The Roman efforts, however, failed to stop the spread of Christianity....

    source

    © Copyright Original Source



    Source: CIVILIZATION PAST & PRESENT 11th Ed. Brummett, Edgar, Hackett, Jewsbury, Molony


    CIVILIZATION PAST & PRESENT 11th Edition Brummett, Edgar, Hackett, Jewsbury, Molony p. 152 ISBN 0321428382
    Reasons for the Spread of Christianity
    The popular mystery religions that the Romans had embraced from Greece and the Near East during the troubled last century of the Republic gave spiritual satisfaction not provided by Rome's early ritualistic forms of worship. These mystery religions included the worship of the Phrygian Cybele, the Great Mother (Magna Mater); the Egyptian Isis, sister and wife of Osiris; the Greek Dionysus, called Bacchus by the Romans; and the Persian sun-god Mithras, the intermediary between humans and Ahura-Mazda, the great Lord of Light, whose sacred day of worship was called Sunday and from whose cult women were excluded. Common to all the mystery religions were the notions of a divine savior and the promise of everlasting life.
    Followers of these mystery cults found Christian beliefs and practices familiar enough to convert easily to the new faith. But Christianity had far more to offer than the mystery religions did. Its founder was not a creature of myth, like the gods and goddesses of the mystery cults, but a real person whose ethical teachings were preserved by his followers and later written down. Shared with the Jews was the concept of a single omnipotent God, the God of the Hebrew Scriptures, now the God of all humanity. Moreover, Christianity was a dynamic, aggressive faith. It upheld the spiritual equality of all people--rich and poor, slave and freeborn, male and female. Women were among Jesus's audiences, and Paul's letters give much evidence of women active in the early church. One of Jesus's closest and favored followers was said to have been Mary Magdalene, a former prostitute. According to the so-called Gnostic Gospels, which the church declared heretical in the early fourth century and ordered destroyed, "Christ loved her more than all the disciples."
    Christianity taught that God, the loving Father, had sent his only Son to atone for human sins and offered a vision of immortality and an opportunity to be "born again," cleansed of sin. Its converts were bound together by faith and hope, and they took seriously their obligation of caring for orphans, widows, and other unfortunates. The courage with which some of their number faced death and persecution impressed even their bitterest enemies.

    source

    © Copyright Original Source


    ..continued one more ref
    To say that crony capitalism is not true/free market capitalism, is like saying a grand slam is not true baseball, or like saying scoring a touchdown is not true American football ...Stefan Mykhaylo D

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    tWebber jordanriver's Avatar
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    continued:

    and finally my best reference text, (every page category and years)
    Source: THE TIMETABLES OF HISTORY Bernard Grun Touchstone Books


    THE TIMETABLES OF HISTORY Bernard Grun Touchstone Books Page 24 ISBN 0671249886
    (under category column 'Religion, Philosophy, Learning') (years -50 to -1 and 1 to 50)
    -50 to -1 (BCE 50 to BCE 1)Probable date of the birth of Jesus Christ at Bethlehem -4 after adjustment of calendar 1 to 50 (AD 1 to AD 50)
    Baptism of Jesus Christ (27)
    Probable date of crucifixion of Jesus Christ (30)
    One of the earliest Christian churches erected at Corinth (c. 40)
    St. Paul sets out on his missionary travels (45)

    source

    © Copyright Original Source

    To say that crony capitalism is not true/free market capitalism, is like saying a grand slam is not true baseball, or like saying scoring a touchdown is not true American football ...Stefan Mykhaylo D

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    See, the Thing is... Cow Poke's Avatar
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    tldr

    1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.

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    tWebber Boxing Pythagoras's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by jordanriver View Post
    IMHO, there is no need to invade Science classrooms with religious history, since religious history is already represented in World History Class TEXTBOOKS
    It's also rather largely present in Philosophy classrooms, as well it should be.
    "[Mathematics] is the revealer of every hidden truth, for it knows every hidden secret, and bears the key to every subtlety of letters; whoever, then, has the effrontery to pursue physics while neglecting mathematics should know from the start he will never make his entry through the portals of wisdom."
    --Thomas Bradwardine, De Continuo (c. 1325)

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    So ... I'm a little unclear about the point you're making. Are you saying that ID and YEC positions should not be taught in science because they are fundamentally religious positions? If so, I agree. However, having read your comments elsewhere I can't help feeling I'm getting that wrong.

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    tWebber jordanriver's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by pancreasman View Post
    So ... I'm a little unclear about the point you're making. Are you saying that ID and YEC positions should not be taught in science because they are fundamentally religious positions? If so, I agree. However, having read your comments elsewhere I can't help feeling I'm getting that wrong.
    what was your conclusion about my position based on my comments elsewhere?
    To say that crony capitalism is not true/free market capitalism, is like saying a grand slam is not true baseball, or like saying scoring a touchdown is not true American football ...Stefan Mykhaylo D

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    Professor Cerebrum123's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by pancreasman View Post
    So ... I'm a little unclear about the point you're making. Are you saying that ID and YEC positions should not be taught in science because they are fundamentally religious positions? If so, I agree. However, having read your comments elsewhere I can't help feeling I'm getting that wrong.
    I think he's saying it's unnecessary to do so, since it can be taught elsewhere in schools without causing an uproar.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jordanriver View Post
    what was your conclusion about my position based on my comments elsewhere?
    I would have thought you were a proponent of teaching ID and/or YEC as science.

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    tWebber jordanriver's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Cow Poke View Post
    tldr
    no need.
    They all say about the same.

    The point is, the Jesus account is:

    category: World History,

    (something that happened, something that changed the world), and World History historians acknowledge that, based on the fact that their textbooks acknowledge that. I could have posted more and more, but at some point one has to stop. (overkill)
    To say that crony capitalism is not true/free market capitalism, is like saying a grand slam is not true baseball, or like saying scoring a touchdown is not true American football ...Stefan Mykhaylo D

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    tWebber jordanriver's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by pancreasman View Post
    I would have thought you were a proponent of teaching ID and/or YEC as science.
    I have posted my position that I do not put The Bible Creation Account in science category
    To say that crony capitalism is not true/free market capitalism, is like saying a grand slam is not true baseball, or like saying scoring a touchdown is not true American football ...Stefan Mykhaylo D

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