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Thread: Jesus as the heart-knower of all (καρδιογνώστης = omniscience)‏

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    Jesus as the heart-knower of all (καρδιογνώστης = omniscience)‏

    A. Only God is omniscient.
    1. NIDNTT: Only God has infinite powers of knowledge and revelation (1:222, Blood, F. Laubach).

    B. To know the totality of all the hearts of all people (Greek: καρδιογνῶστα), which was said to be known only by God (1 Kings 8:39; cf. 2 Chronicles 6:30), is the same thing as being omniscient (God).
    1. NIDNTT: The kidneys (Heb. kelayot; Gk. nephros, only in plur.; in the NT only Rev. 2:23, citing Jer. 11:20) are frequently mentioned in close connection with the heart. They are - in the metaphorical sense - the seat of the deepest spiritual emotions and motives (Ps. 7:9[10]; 26:2; Jer. 17:10; 20:12; cf. 1 Sam. 24:5[6]; 25:31; leb conscience), so secret that men cannot fathom them. Only God is able to search and test them (2:181-182, Heart, T. Sorg).
    2. NIDNTT: kardiognwstes is unknown to secular Gk. and to the LXX, and occurs in the NT only in Acts 1:24 and 15:8 and later in patristic writings. It describes God as the knower of hearts. The fact that God sees, tests and searches the hidden depths of the human heart is commonly stated in both the OT and the NT (1 Sam. 16:7; Jer. 11:20; 17:9f.; Lk. 16:15; Rom. 8:27; 1 Thess. 2:4; Rev. 2:23). This belief in the omniscience of God is expressed succinctly by the adj. kardiognwstes (2:183, Heart, T. Sorg).
    3. TDNT: The designation of God as ho kardiognwstes, "the One who knows the heart," expresses in a single term (Ac. 1:24; 15:8) something which is familiar to both the NT and OT piety (Lk. 16:15; R. 8:27; 1 Th. 2:4; Rev. 2:23 of Christ, cf. 1 Bas. 16:7; 3 Bas. 8:39; 1 Par. 28:9; Psalm 7:9; Ier. 11:20; 17:10; Sir. 42:18 ff.), namely that the omniscient God knows the innermost being of every man where the decision is made either for Him or against Him (3:613, kardiognwstes, Behm).
    4. Danker: knower of hearts, one who knows the hearts, of God Ac 1:24; 15:8 (on these pass. s. JBauer, BZ 32, 88, 114-117); Hm 4, 3, 4. - M-M. DELG s.v. gignwskw. TW (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, kardiognwstes, page 509).
    ---> TW stands for the TDNT - Theologisches Worterbuch zum NT, ed. GKittel (d. 1948)
    5. Keil and Delitzsch: The reins are the seat of the emotions, just as the heart is the seat of the thoughts
    and feelings. Reins and heart lie naked before God - a description of the only kardiognwstes, which is repeated
    in Jer. 11.20, 20.12, Apoc. 2.23 (Commentary on the Old Testament, Psalms, Volume 5, C.F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, page 144).
    6. Mounce: While people may be deceived by their own hearts and the deceitful hearts of others (Jas. 1:26), and while sin and evil reside in the human heart (Rom. 1:21; Jas. 3:14), before the Lord the heart is an open book. He knows our hearts (Lk. 9:47; 16:15), tests them (1Thess. 2:4), searches them (Rom. 8:27; Rev. 2:23), strengthens them (1 Thess. 3:13), and reveals their motives (1 Cor. 4:5) (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Heart, page 328).
    7. EDNT: On the one hand God is "in heaven" (Matt 6:9f. par.; 7:11; 11:25) and strictly distinguishable from everything that is of this world. On the other hand, however, he is present (Matt 6:1-18; Rev 1:8) and omniscient (Matt 6:8, 32; Acts 1:24; 15:8) (2:141, theos, G. Schneider).
    8. Joel B. Greene: The Lord is addressed as "the one who knows the heart" (kardiognwsta). This is an expression used only twice in the New Testament (here and in Acts 15:8), but that points to a concept almost proverbial in biblical literature - that is, that God is omniscient, who knows the innermost being of humans and foreordains human destiny. In this prayer, there is the consciousness that the Lord is all-knowing and has already chosen Judas's replacement. This understanding is clearly bound up thematically with the prior choosing of the apostles by Jesus (cf. Luke 6:12-16; Acts 1:2) and the prescience of God involving these events, as presented in the interpretation of the Old Testament Psalms in Acts 1:16, 20 (Into God's Presence: Prayer in the New Testament, Editor: Richard N. Longenecker:; From Chapter 9, Persevering Together in Prayer: The Significance of Prayer in the Acts of the Apostles by Joel B. Greene, page 190).

    The following passages will demonstrate that the Lord Jesus knows the totality of all the hearts of all people which proves that He is omniscient (God).

    C. Matthew 16:27
    For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and WILL THEN REPAY EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS. (Matthew 16:27, NASB)
    a. great in counsel and mighty in deed, whose eyes are open to all the ways of the sons of men, giving to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruit of his deeds (Jeremiah 32:19, NASB)
    b. For My eyes are on all their ways; they are not hidden from My face, nor is their iniquity concealed from My eyes. (Jeremiah 16:17, NASB)
    c. John Nolland: To reward each according to his or her works or deeds is a function regularly attributed to God. Here this function is taken on by the Son of Man. (The New International Greek Testament Commentary: The Gospel of Matthew, page 694).

    D. John 2:24-25
    But Jesus, on His part, was not entrusting Himself to them, for He knew all men, and because He did not need anyone to testify concerning man, for He Himself knew what was in man (John 2:24, 25, NASB).
    1. TDNT: the Joahannine Christ knows the hearts (Jn. 2:25; 21:17) (TDNT 3:613, kardiognwstes, footnote #1 Behm).
    2. TDNT: He has the ability to search the innermost impulses of the human heart, Jn. 2:24 f. (6:844, prophetes, Friedrich).
    3. NIDNTT: He sees Nathanael under the fig tree (1:48) and the thoughts and inner nature of man (2:25) (3:517, See, K. Dahn).
    4. A.H. Leitch: Christ possesses the attributes of God: omniscience (Jn. 2:24-25) (The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible 2:94, deity of Christ).
    5. Geneva Study Bible: Christ is the searcher of hearts, and therefore truly God. (John 2:25)
    http://www.studylight.org/com/gsb/view.cgi?bk=42&ch=2

    E. John 5:22
    For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son (John 5:22, NASB).
    1. Since the Lord Jesus is the Judge of all it necessitates that He knows the totality of all the hearts of all people (cf. Mathew 25:31 f.)
    2. Barnes: Judgeth no man - Jesus in these verses is showing his “equality with God.” He affirmed John 5:17 that he had the same power over the Sabbath that his Father had; in John 5:19, that he did the same things as the Father; in John 5:21 particularly that he had the same power to raise the dead. He now adds that God has given him the authority to “judge” men. The Father pronounces judgment on no one. This office he has committed to the Son. The power of judging the world implies ability to search the heart, and omniscience to understand the motives of all actions. This is a work which none but a divine being can do, and it shows, therefore, that the Son is equal to the Father.
    http://www.studylight.org/com/bnb/view.cgi?bk=42&ch=5
    3. Gill: For the Father judgeth no man,.... That is, without the Son; which is another proof of their equality: for that he does judge is certain; he is the Judge of the whole earth; he is God that judgeth in the earth, or governs the world with his Son, who works together in the affairs of providence: he judged and condemned the old world, but not without his Son, who by his Spirit, or in his divine nature, went and preached to the spirits now in prison, then disobedient in the times of Noah; he judged and condemned Sodom and Gomorrah, but not without the Son; for Jehovah the Son rained, from Jehovah the Father, fire and brimstone upon those cities, and consumed them; he judged the people of Israel, and often chastised them for their sins, but not without his Son; the angel of his presence that went before them; he judges all men, and justifies and acquits whom he pleases, but not without his Son; but through his justifying righteousness, which he imputes to them; in doing which he appears to he a just judge, and to do right; and he will judge the world in righteousness at the last day by his Son, whom he has ordained; so as the Son does nothing without the Father, the Father does nothing without the Son, which shows perfect equality.
    http://www.studylight.org/com/geb/view.cgi?bk=42&ch=5
    4. Gill: Jesus Christ; to whom all judgment is committed, who is ordained Judge of quick and dead, and is every way fit for that office, being God as well as man, and so both omniscient and omnipotent (Romans 2:16)
    http://www.studylight.org/com/geb/view.cgi?bk=44&ch=2
    5. The same author (Paul) to the same recipient (Timothy) applies the omniscience of God to the Lord Jesus (2 Timothy 4:8 with 1 Timothy 5:24-25, cf. Psalms 9:8; 50:6; 72:2; 96:10, 13; 98:9).
    a. in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing (NASB).
    In 2 Timothy 4:8 Paul refers to the Lord Jesus as "the righteous Judge" in the context of His coming again/appearing. Three previous times in his letters to Timothy Paul used "appearing" in reference to the Lord Jesus (1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 1:10; 2 Timothy 4:1).
    b. The sins of some men are quite evident, going before them to judgment; for others, their sins follow after. Likewise also, deeds that are good are quite evident, and those which are otherwise cannot be concealed (1 Timothy 5:24-25, NASB).
    In 1 Timothy 5:24-25 we read of the Omniscient God that no one can escape from.
    Last edited by foudroyant; 07-31-2014 at 07:51 AM.

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    F. John 21:17
    He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love Me?" Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, "Do you love Me?" And he said to Him, "Lord, You know all things; You know that I love You." Jesus said to him, "Tend My sheep (John 21:17, NASB).
    1. Following his resurrection, Jesus had a conversation with Peter that no doubt dispelled any doubts about Peter’s having been forgiven. Jesus uttered no harsh words, no condemnation. Instead, he asked Peter: “Do you love me?” Peter answered: “Yes, Lord, you know I have affection for you.” Jesus responded: “Feed my lambs.” Jesus repeated the question a second time, and Peter gave the same answer, perhaps more emphatically. Jesus said: “Shepherd my little sheep.” Then Jesus asked the same basic question a third time: “Do you have affection for me?” Now “Peter became grieved” and said: “Lord, you know all things; you are aware that I have affection for you.” Jesus answered: “Feed my little sheep.”—John 21:15-17. Why did Jesus ask questions to which he already knew the answers? Jesus could read hearts, so he knew that Peter loved him. (Mark 2:8) By asking those questions, Jesus gave Peter an opportunity to reaffirm his love three times. Jesus’ words in response: “Feed my lambs. . . . Shepherd my little sheep. . . .Feed my little sheep,” reassured the repentant apostle that he was still trusted. After all, Jesus was commissioning Peter to help care for a most precious possession—Jesus’ dear sheeplike followers. (John 10:14, 15) Peter must surely have been relieved to know that he was still trustworthy in Jesus’ eyes! (The Watchtower, A God Willing to Forgive, June 1, 2008, Page 23).
    2. Concerning the word "know"
    a. Mounce: There is little difference between ginwsko and oida in NT usage as they are often used synonymously and merely reflect the speaker's preference for one word rather than the other (e.g., Mt. 16:3 compared to Lk. 12:56) (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Know page 384).
    b. TDNT: ginwskein and eidenai can be used as full equivalents (1:703n61, ginwskw, Bultmann).
    3. Peter Lange: Lord, Thou knowest all things [Kurie, panta su oidas, su ginwskeis hoti philw se]. Comp. chap. 16.30; Acts 1.24.(Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, Volume 9, John and Acts, page 640).
    4. George Beasley-Murray: By this time all the old self-confidence and assertiveness manifest in Peter before the crucifixion of Jesus had drained away. He could only appeal to the Lord's totality of knowledge, which included his knowledge of Peter's heart (Word Biblical Commentary, John, 21:17, Volume 36, page 405).
    5. William Hendriksen: He does not dare to appeal to anything within himself. So he appeals once more, and now more emphatically than ever, to his Lord's omniscience. Says he, "Lord, all things thou knowest." And because Jesus knows all things, he must be able to realize that Peter has affection for Jesus (New Testament Commentary: Exposition of the Gospel of John, John 21:17, page 488).
    6. Arthur W. Pink: "And he said unto him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee" (21:17). Beautiful is it to behold here the transforming effects of Divine grace. He would not now boast that his love was superior to that of others; he would not even allow that he had any love; nay more, he is at last brought to the place where he now declines to avow even his affection. He therefore casts himself on Christ's omniscience. "Lord," he says, "thou knowest all things." Men could see no signs of any love or affection when I denied Thee; but Thou canst read my very heart; I appeal therefore to Thine all-seeing eye. That Christ knew all things comforted this disciple, as it should us. Peter realized that the Lord knew the depths as well as the surfaces of things, and therefore, that He saw what was in his poor servant's heart, though his lips had so transgressed. Thus did he once more own the absolute Deity of the Saviour (Exposition of the Gospel of John, John 21:17, Chapter 71 page 324).
    7. Whedon: Knowest all things—The man whom he denies is divine. The man whom, in the hour of the denial, he knew not, knows all things. (John 21:17)
    http://www.studylight.org/com/whe/view.cgi?bk=42&ch=21
    8. Guzik: Do you love Me . . .Lord, You know all things: This time, Jesus asks if Peter does in fact have a friendly devotion (phileo) to Jesus. Peter leaves the question with Jesus’ omniscience.
    http://www.studylight.org/com/guz/view.cgi?bk=42&ch=21
    9. Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament: Omniscience (of Christ)
    Thus His disciples said of Him, ‘Thou knowest all things’ (John 16:30; John 21:17 ).‘He knew what was in man’ (John 2:25).
    http://www.studylight.org/dic/hdn/view.cgi?n=1866

    G. Acts 1:24-25
    And they prayed and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two You have chosen to occupy this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place." (Acts 1:24-25, NASB)
    1. See "Acts 1:24-25 is a prayer to the Lord Jesus" Part ": http://www.theologyweb.com/campus/sh...the-Lord-Jesus

    H. 1 Corinthians 4:5
    Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men's hearts; and then each man's praise will come to him from God (1 Corinthians 4:5, NASB).
    1. NIDNTT: God alone can reveal the things hidden in the heart of man (1 Cor. 4:5), examine them (Rom. 8:27) and test them (1 Thess. 2:4) (2:183, Heart, T. Sorg).
    2. Mounce: While people may be deceived by their own hearts and the deceitful hearts of others (Jas. 1:26), and while sin and evil reside in the human heart (Rom. 1:21; Jas. 3:14), before the Lord the heart is an open book. He knows our hearts (Lk. 9:47; 16:15), tests them (1Thess. 2:4), searches them (Rom. 8:27; Rev. 2:23), strengthens them (1 Thess. 3:13), and reveals their motives (1 Cor. 4:5) (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Heart, page 328).
    3. A.H. Leitch: Christ possesses the attributes of God: omniscience (1 Cor. 4:5) (The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible 2:94, deity of Christ).
    4. TDNT: Paul lives in expectation of the imminent coming again of Christ (1 C. 4:5) (2:674, erchomai, Schneider).
    5. TDNT: Under "kyrios", 'Jesus as Lord' it reads, "The Lord is the coming One "(1 Th. 4:15 ff.; 1 C. 4:5; 11:26; Phil 4:5) (3:1091, kyrios, Foerster).
    6. NIDNTT: Other passages speak of the coming of the kyrios, of meeting him, of his nearness and of his heavenly revelation (1 Cor. 4:5; Phil 4:5; 1 Thess 6:16; Jas. 5:7f.) (2:518, Lord, Bietenhard).
    7. Robertson: Until the Lord come (εως αν ελτηιο κυριος — heōs an elthēi ho kurios). Common idiom of εως — heōs and the aorist subjunctive with or without αν — an for a future event. Simple futurity, but held forth as a glorious hope, the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus as Judge.
    http://www.studylight.org/com/rwp/view.cgi?bk=45&ch=4
    8. Roy Ciampa: Does "the Lord" here and in v.4 refer to God or Jesus? That both are mentioned in v.1 makes the question worth asking. Whereas the reference to God's dispensing praise at the end of v.5 might suggest that he is in view, the combination of "the Lord" with the verb "to come," as in 1 Thess. 5:2, coupled with the reference to the Lord (Christ) in 3:5, means that the phrase here is a technical term for the return of Christ (Pillar New Testament Commentary: 1 Corinthians, page 173).
    9. Paul also speaks of the Lord coming (erchomai) in 1 Corinthians 11:26 in reference to the Lord Jesus (cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:10).
    Last edited by foudroyant; 07-31-2014 at 07:50 AM.

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    I. 1 Peter 2:25
    For you were continually straying like sheep, but now you have returned to the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls (1 Peter 2:25, NASB).
    1. This passage refers to the Lord Jesus Christ.
    a. Danker: Of Christ (w. poimen) e. twn psuchon guardian of the souls 1 Pt 2:25 (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, episkopos, page 379).
    b. EDNT: According to 1 Pet 2:25 Christ is the shepherd and overseer of souls (2:36, episkopos, J. Rohde).
    c. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: The word is once applied to Christ Himself, "the Shepherd and Bishop (RSV Guardian) of your souls" (1 Pet. 2:25, AV) (1:516, Bishop, H.E. Dosker).
    d. Louw and Nida: In 1 Pe 2.25 episkopos is applied to Christ (Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains, 35.43, episkopos, page 463).
    e. Mounce: In 1 Pet. 2:25, Peter refers to Jesus as "the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls." Jesus is, in other words, the chief overseer of our lives, all other church leaders function on his behalf and should use his life as a model (cf. 5:1-4) (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Overseer, page 493).
    f. NIDNTT: Earlier uses of episkopos reach their climax in 1 Pet. 2:25, where Jesus Christ is described as "the Shepherd (poimen) and Guardian (episkopos) of your souls" (RSV) (1:191, Bishop, L. Coenen).
    g. Robertson: Here alone is Christ called our "Bishop" (overseer).
    http://studylight.org/com/rwp/view.c...=002&verse=025
    h. Thayer: metaph. the presiding officer, manager, director, of any assembly: so of Christ the Head of the church, Jn. 10.16; 1 Pet. 2.25 (Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, poimen, page 527).
    i. Vine: Christ Himself is spoken of as "the...Bishop of our souls," 1 Pet. 2:25 (Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words, Bishop, page 121).
    2. To be the "Shepherd and Bishop" of souls means to be omniscient.
    a. Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown: Shepherd and Bishop — The designation of the pastors and elders of the Church belongs in its fullest sense to the great Head of the Church, “the good Shepherd.” As the “bishop” oversees (as the Greek term means), so “the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous” (1 Peter 3:12). (Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible)
    http://www.studylight.org/com/jfb/view.cgi?bk=59&ch=2
    b. TDNT: Christ is He who has the fullest knowledge of souls. He knows every inner secret, as is said of God in Wis. 1:6 and the passages quoted from Philo (-> 614). He is also the One who gives Himself most self-sacrificingly to care for the souls of the faithful (cf. episkopew in Hb. 12:15). It is for this reason that poimen and episkopos are so closely related. The phrase "shepherd and bishop of your souls" carries within it all that is said by Greek speaking Gentiles and Jews about God as episkopos. As suggested by the context, which points us to the deepest mysteries about salvation history, episkopos is thus a title of majesty ascribed to Jesus is His work in relation to the community (2:615, episkopos, Beyer).
    ON PAGE 614: The LXX uses episkopos in the same twofold way as secular Greek. On the one hand it denotes God, and on the other it has the general sense of supervisors in different fields. If in polytheistic belief each deity acts as episkopos over certain men and things, the one God does this far more comprehensively. He is the absolute episkopos who sees all things.
    Thus at Job 20:29 the LXX renders the Hb. El by episkopos. As such God is Judge of the ungodly. The term is here is brought into relation to kurios. Philo has the same line of thought. He calls God ephoros kai episkopos in Mut. Nom., 39, 216. The combination of martus kai episkopos, already used by Homer, is also found in Philo at Leg. All., 3, 43. In this capacity God is the One from whom no wickedness can be hidden. ho twn holwn episkopos is the Omniscient, Som., 1, 91. Thus on Philo's view Moses finely introduces God in the first chapter of the Bible as "the Father of all and the Contemplator of all that has come into being," This judgment rests on the statement that "God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good," Migr. Abr., 135. In Jewish thought this profound understanding of God as the One who sees all things produceg the term panepiskopos, which occurs more than once in the Sibyllines: 1, 152; 2, 177; 5, 352. In particular, God sees into the human heart. In this respect the LXX links martus and episkopos at Wis. 1:6 Cf. Ac. 1:24, where God is called kardiognwstes. God sees what is concealed in the soul of man, says Philo Migr. Abr., 115. God alone perceives the enthumemata of man, Migr. Abr., 81 (page 614).

    J. Revelation 2:23
    And I will kill her children with pestilence, and all the churches will know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your deeds (Revelation 2:23, NASB).
    1. See the citations in Post #1, Part B (above).
    a. TDNT: In the same sense we read of the knowledge of God Himself at Rev. 2:23 (1:705, ginwskw, Bultmann).
    b. Robert L. Thomas: "The one who searches the reigns and hearts," an allusion to Jer. 17:10 (cf. also Ps. 7:9; Prov. 24:12; Jer. 11:20; 20:12) is a designation for one who has an intimate knowledge of man that pierces below superficial surfaces. Just as in the Jeremiah passage, the point of this self-designation is that divine acquaintance with man's real, secret life forms the basis for an unerring and impartial judgment. Christ has demonstrated such omniscience in His appraisal of and strong words against Jezebel and her children. They cannot hide their evil from Him. The exercise of this divine attribute is spoken of in terms of a search of nephrous kai kardias (Revelation 1-7: An Exegetical Commentary, page 224).
    c. Albert Barnes: This is clearly a claim to omniscience; and as it is the Lord Jesus who speaks in all these epistles, it is a full proof that he claims this for himself. There is nothing which more clearly appertains to God than the power of searching the heart, and nothing that is more constantly claimed by him as his peculiar prerogative, 1 Chronicles 28:19; Psalms 7:9; 11:4; 44:21: Psalms 139:2; Proverbs 15:3; Jeremiah 11:20; 17:10; 20:12; 32:19; Hebrews 4:13.
    http://www.studylight.org/com/bnn/vi...re&chapter=002
    d. John Gill: shall know that I am he that searcheth the reins and heart; or am the omniscient God
    http://www.studylight.org/com/geb/vi...=002&verse=023
    e. EDNT: In Rev 2:23, in a description of God, who examines (or tests) "kidneys and hearts," i.e., who knows the innermost parts of human beings (cf. LXX Ps 7:10; Jer 11:20; 17:10; 20:12) (2:464, nephros, S. Legasse).
    f. NIDNTT: An OT concept appears in Rom. 8:27 and Rev. 2:23. God searches the hearts of men (cf. 1 Sam. 16:7; 1 Ki. 8:39; Ps. 7:10). While God searches the depths of men's hearts, his judgments on them are unfathomable (Rom. 11:33, anexeraunetos) (3:533, Seek, M. Seitz).
    g. David Aune: This allusion has important christological significance, since the original speaker in Jer 17:10 was Yahweh, but now it is the exalted Christ who possesses the same omniscience (Word Biblical Commentary, 52A, Revelation 1-5, page 206).
    h. Trench: But this searching of the hearts and reigns being, as it is, a prerogative of Deity (Mark 2.8), God only knowing the hearts of men (Acts 15.8; 1.24; 1 Chron. 29.17), it is plain that Christ, challenging this power for Himself, is implicitly claiming to be God (Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven Churches in Asia, page 143).
    i. G.K. Beale: Christ is the omniscient judge of his unfaithful followers (Rev 2:23) (We Become What We Worship: A Biblical Theology of Idolatry, page 243).
    Last edited by foudroyant; 06-25-2014 at 04:21 PM.

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    K. The JW's and the omniscience of the Lord Jesus
    a. The JW's cite Hebrews 4:13 and affirm that it teaches Jehovah's omniscience:
    Eye: Describing God’s observation of the actions of all men, Jeremiah wrote that His “eyes are opened upon all
    the ways of the sons of men, in order to give to each one according to his ways.” (Jer 32:19) Of Jehovah’s omniscience and his purpose to exercise justice toward all, the apostle Paul wrote: “There is not a creation that is not manifest to his sight, but all things are naked and openly exposed to the eyes of him with whom we have an accounting.” (Heb 4:13; 2Ch 16:9; Ps 66:7; Pr 15:3) Of the searching quality of God’s examination of men, the psalmist says: “His own eyes behold, his own beaming eyes examine the sons of men.”—Ps 11:4. (Insight on the Scriptures, Volume 1, page 789)
    b. The JW's cite Hebrews 4:13 and apply this same knowledge (omniscience) to the Lord Jesus:
    By way of contrast, however, Jehovah God is described as “the examiner of hearts.” (Proverbs 17:3; 1 Samuel
    16:7; 1 Chronicles 29:17) “There is not a creation that is not manifest to his [Jehovah’s] sight,” declares Hebrews 4:13, “but all things are naked and openly exposed to the eyes of him with whom we have an accounting.” Not surprisingly, Jehovah has granted the ability to examine hearts to his Son, Jesus. The resurrected Jesus declared: “I am he who searches the kidneys and hearts, and I will give to you individually according to your deeds.”—Revelation
    2:23. (The Watchtower, Questions from Readers, June 15, 2003).
    c. Since God is "fittingly described as omnipotent and omniscient—almighty and all-knowing" (Awake! The Bible’s Viewpoint: Is God Everywhere?, March 8, 2005) the JW's have (inadvertently?) asserted the Lord Jesus is God.

    L. Objections
    1. If some say that God simply gave the Lord Jesus the ability to read hearts then that would mean the Omniscient God created another Omniscient God. The Bible teaches there is only one omniscient God.
    Omniscient: (3) the Omniscient God (Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, page 1005, NY: Gramercy Books, c. 1996).
    2. If some say that prophets were able to read the hearts of people (cf. 2 Kings 6:12; Acts 5:3-5) we must remember that although they had more insight than others they were never said to be able to know the totality of the hearts of all people. Only God has this knowledge (omniscience).

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    I would also like to add the following from the Old Testament which teaches that the Lord Jesus knows the totality of all the hearts of all people which proves that He is omniscient (God).


    Isaiah 11:3-4
    And He will delight in the fear of the LORD, and He will not judge by what His eyes see, nor make a decision by what His ears hear; but with righteousness He will judge the poor, and decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth; and He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked. (NASB)

    a. Robert Jamieson, Andrew Robert Fausset, and David Brown: After the hearing of his ears - by mere plausible hearsays, but by the true merits of each case, which He "knew from the beginning" (John 6:64; Revelation 2:23). (Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged)
    http://www.studylight.org/commentari...gi?bk=22&ch=11
    b. Matthew Poole: After the sight of his eyes; according to outward appearance, as men must do, because they cannot search men’s hearts, 1 Samuel 16:7, or with respect of persons, but with righteous judgment, which is opposed to judging by appearance, John 7:24. Reprove, i.e. condemn or pass sentence against a person; for Christ is here supposed to be a Judge, and so he speaks of a judicial reproof. After the hearing of his ears, by false or uncertain rumours or suggestions, but shall thoroughly examine all causes, and search out the truth of things, and the very hearts of men.
    http://www.studylight.org/commentari...gi?bk=22&ch=11
    c. John Oswalt: A human judge can do no more than to make the best use of his or her natural faculties in attempting to reach a fair ruling. Somehow this king will go deeper than that and will pierce beneath appearances to the underlying reality. This is a sweeping promise, for, as Young observes, absolute justice demands absolute knowledge. In this light, it must be obvious that the king for whom Isaiah looks is more than a new edition of the present monarchy. Rather, he looks for a radically different kind of kingship (cf. John 18:36-18) (The New International Commentary on the Old Testament: The Book of Isaiah, pages 280-281).
    Last edited by foudroyant; 07-31-2014 at 05:10 AM.

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